ABSTRACTS: Trans. Language Department of IKI


The Whispered Words of the Needy to the Deity (2)

Ayatollah 'Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah

The present paper seeks to elucidate Imam Sajjad's "whispered words of utterly poor", on the basis of a lecture delivered by Professor Ayatollah Misbah. During whisper prayers, man should first know what his needs are and express them. Second, he should be certain that the Most High God has unlimited power and can grant his needs. Third, he should believe that only God can grant his needs.
The Most High God has bestowed upon us valuable boundless bounty and when we think about them for a while we will realize how valuable it is and thank God for it. In our prayers, we should not seek from God only material and passing needs. In their recorded prayers, the infallible Imams (peace be upon them) recommend that we concentrate in out supplication on spiritual and transcendent values.

Key words: prayers, supplication, Imam Sajjad (peace be upon him), need of inherent poverty.

The Anthropological Foundations of Values

Afarin Qa'emi, Karim Khanmohammadi

Over the history, every community has had its own values and norms all of which have been inspired from their basic insights (principles). Therefore, demonstrating or setting them right can greatly influence the scope and depth of their application and the extent of correct action on the basis of them. The present paper briefly focuses on "anthropological principles". One who believes in the idea that man has two dimensions, the survival of soul after death, free will and duty, and  possibility that man can rise  to the station of divine vicegerency through achieving certainty and patience and observing values is completely different from the person who does not believe in them, in terms of thinking, intention, speech and action, because the things which are value for him (for example, spiritualities and sacrifice) may seem anti-value for the other and vice versa (for example, luxury and faddishness), while both of them regard some natural things (for example, humanitarianism and perfectionism) as values and some other things (for example, oppression, humiliation and ridicule) as anti-values. Using an analytical-descriptive method, the present paper sheds light on this issue.

Key words: anthropology, immateriality of soul, intellection, free will, divine vicegerency, responsibility, value.

The Role of Accepting the Authority of the Holy Prophet's Household in Personal Security and a Psychological Analysis of It

Mohammad Zare'i Toopkhaneh

The present paper seeks to study the role of accepting the authority of Holy Prophet's household in ensuring a believer's personal security.  Security is one of man's basic needs, which paves the ground for meeting other needs can be met. This paper, first, sheds light on the importance of security from the view of religion and psychology. It briefly points out to the sources of security in psychology. Then, relying on religious texts, it refers to the damages that come to man and considers accepting the authority of Holy Prophet's household as one of the factors which contributes to security. Using a descriptive-analytical method and a psychological analysis, this paper seeks to study how "accepting the authority of Holy Prophet's household" plays role in "personal security. The research findings indicate that invulnerability is one of the basic functions of accepting this authority, which brings about personal security in worldly (physical, financial, spiritual and mental) and other worldly dimensions. Invulnerability is realized through following parameters: recognizing interests and damages, modeling, sense of control, hope in having support, meaningfulness of life and the Unseen aid.

Key words: personal security, accepting authority by Holy Prophet's household, invulnerability.

A Review of the Concept of Self-Knowledge in the View of Islam and Deducing Its Educational Aims and Methods

Sheida Riyazi Haravi, Babak Shamshiri

In the view of Islam, Self-knowledge is a fundamental concept which can be accessed through internal (microcosmic) and external (macrocosmic) knowledge and it is the very origin of many moral and educational teachings. Accordingly, the present paper sheds light on the concept of self-knowledge in the view of Islam and extracts educational objectives and methods inspired from this concept. This is a qualitative research and a descriptive-interpretive method and a theological approach are used to examine the idea of self-knowledge according to Islam. So, it first refers to the Quran and commentaries of Shia theologians and pundits. We can conclude that, according to the view of Islam, rationality is the basis of internal and external self-knowledge, purification of soul and man's spiritual perfection, and it is related to the educational objectives and methods inspired from this concept.

Key words: anthropology of Islam, self-knowledge in Islam, educational objectives, educational methods.


A Content Analysis of Textbooks on Religious education for the Intermediate Schools with Regard to Providing the Fiqhi (Legal) Decrees which Female Students Need to Know

Fatimah Alipoor, Fa'ezeh Nateqi, Aliraza Faqihi

The present paper analyzes the content of the books on religious education for intermediate schools with regard to fiqhi decrees which female students need to know. It is a content analysis research in which a descriptive method is used. The statistical population includes three books on religious education for grades one, two and three and these books have been selected as a sample and studied carefully. A researcher-made checklist is used to gather data which is analyzed by descriptive statistics. The most important findings are as follows: there is no topic on fiqhi decrees about religious duties in these three books, and the fiqhi decrees about imitating a religious authority as Marja' have been referred to very briefly. The fiqhi decrees which need more emphasis, including those related to Mahram (Anyone a Muslim is not allowed to marry is mahram) and non-mahram (Anyone a Muslim is allowed to marry is non- mahram), have not been given due attention, while special emphasis is given to fiqhi decrees about worship.

Key words: fiqhi decrees, content analysis, books on religious education, puberty and adolescence.


Confidence in God: Its Requirements and Obstacles According to Traditions

Najmeh Heidari, Khalil Moravvej

Having searched for the traditions about confidence in God, and summing up, classifying and processing the data, the present paper demonstrates that the question of confidence in God is confirmed by traditions. Traditions refer to endeavor and friendship with the Holy Prophet's household (peace be upon them) as prerequisites for confidence in God, and refer to ta'weeth (amulet) and augur evil as the obstacles of its realization. This paper examines the relationship between confidence in God and self-confidence, and underlines the prerequisites and obstacles to confidence in God which are mentioned in traditions.
It is emphasized that lawful amulets can be used together with confidence in God and good omen can be a substitute for confidence in God. Confidence in God requires endeavor as it complement. Another prerequisite of confidence in God is friendship with the Holy Prophet's household. Self-confidence gets meaning when associated with confidence in God and His servitude, and both self-confidence and confidence in God are very close together.

Key words: confidence in God, prerequisites, obstacles, self-confidence, the Quran, tradition.


Good Character: Grounds, Functions and Skills

Ali Husseinzadeh

The present paper takes a probing look at the meaning of good character, its limits, the conditions which prepare the grounds for its, its effects, and the skills needed to create and strengthen it. This paper seeks to find the best modus operands for the stability and endurance of life, quiescence and happiness of the family members, satisfying their demands, meeting their affective and emotional needs and achieving felicity. An analytical-descriptive method is used in this research which is based on religious and psychological data. The main findings are: the necessity of taking into consideration the parameters of choosing a spouse in order to prepare the ground for children's good character, having enough skill to cope with various types of characters in life and placing value on good character as the main basis of success in life.

Key words: good temperedness, good character, adjustment, family nobility, quiescence.


An introduction to Avicenna and Jahiz's Views about the Principles of Education

Reza Ali Nouroozi, Hassan Ali Bakhtiar Nasrabadi, Kamal Nosrati Hashi, Mohammad Shahi

The present paper seeks to elaborate on Avicenna and Jahiz's views about the principles of education. An analytical-deductive method is used in this paper which uses available resources to deduce and analyze their views about the principles of education. The findings indicate that there are similarities and differences between the principles adopted by Avicenna and those adopted by Jahiz. Attention to individual differences, recommending rationalism, changeability of attributes, moderation in learning, collective learning, preparing appropriate grounds for learning, adjusting educational programs to man's developmental stages and paying attention to learners' interest in acquiring sciences are among the similarities. The main difference between the views adopted by each of them is that Avicenna pays special attention to the principle of self-knowledge, self-refinement, occupational training, an instructor's qualification and expertise, and attention to the facilities in the process of educational work while Jahiz pays attention to no one of them.

Key words: principles of education, Jahiz, Avicenna.

An Analysis of the Educational Themes in Jami's Book, Baharestan

Narges Tahavvori, Mohammad Behnamfar

Jami's book, Baharestan, is one of the most important educational works of the 9th century (solar), which, imitating Sa'di's book entitled Golestan, combines prose and poetry. The present paper entitled "an analysis of educational themes in Baharestan" is a library survey and uses content analysis and descriptive methods. The research findings indicate that the educational issues in Baharestan are apparently discussed on the basis of Imam Mohammad Ghazali's view, correspond with his thoughts relating to education in family, school and society, and its educational themes are based on justice, attention to subjects, acquiring science,  trustworthiness, and good conduct. Like Imam Mohammad Ghazali, Jami believes that the ultimate aim of education is purification of soul and refraining from corruption in order to achieve sublime human excellences and finally attain nearness to God.

Key words: Baharestan, Jami, education, educational themes.  


The Risk Factors of Spiritual-Liturgical Training of Children in the Family at the Time of Marriage

Khadem Hussein Fazeli, Abulfazl Sajedi

In Islam, starting a family and correct training of children is of special importance and is considered as a way for transcendence. Success in spiritual-liturgical training of children is contingent upon the lack of risk factors in marriage and selection of a spouse. Therefore, it is very necessary to know the grounds and factors which harm spiritual-liturgical training of children at time of marriage and prior to it. The present paper seeks to delve into the risk factors of spiritual- liturgical training of future children in family at the time of marriage and prior to it according to religious resources and view of specialists in order to help those who have concern about marriage, selection of spouse and training their future children. Pathology of spiritual-liturgical training of children in family at the time of marriage and prior to it is one of the most important things in our investigation of this issue. This paper examines the risk factors of spiritual-liturgical training by using a descriptive-analytical method. Among the research findings are irreligiosity of spouse, lack of cultural and ideological agreement between the couple who want to marry, bad-temperedness, the habit of drinking wine, lack of intellectual conformity between the couple, hereditary illnesses and imposed marriages . . . -which are considered risk factors as well.
Key words: marriage, family, risk factors, education, child, liturgical, spiritual.